About Us
American Interests
Arizona Regional
7-Gates University
Free Stuff - E-groups
Internet Investigations
Psionic Guards
Site Search
Social Unrest
Universal Wholesale
Webmaster's Lounge

Are EMF’s irrelevant?
Written by Ty Narada for Dr. Parker







Psi - Ops





EMF Sources 1
EMF Home
EMF Sources 2
Whenever alternating or direct current is used, electric and magnetic fields result. Alternating Current (AC) expands and collapses 120 times every second or 60 cycles-per-second (60 MHz). AC changes polarity and emanates extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF). Electric and magnetic fields are measured by V/m and A/m respectively (Volts & Amps per meter). High voltage electric fields are audible but magnetic fields of equal intensity are silent. Magnetic fields can emanate from unshielded power lines, wires, equipment, appliances, distribution lines, transformers, feeders, switchgears, and heaters that saturate people, buildings, and most metals without audible or visible signs. Questions regarding EMF health hazards have been explored for the last 20 years. The initial findings were negligible but recent technological improvements have led to graver concerns.


The audience includes everyone on planet Earth who may be exposed to EMFs above 2 mG. Although the average home measures less than 1 mG and constitutes ‘no exposure,’ power surges and many work environments can exceed the safety threshold for EMF exposure. Studies have shown that men and young children are the most susceptible to hazards related to EMF exposure.


Active Magnetic Field Cancellation Systems can be installed in the home to mitigate magnetic field levels to less than 2 mG. Thorny shrubs can be planted around transformers to discourage children from playing on or near high voltage equipment. Workers subjected to strong EMFs such as those projected by VDT/CRT (computer monitors) can take precautions to reduce the effects of EMF exposure. Awareness of EMF sources and the potential danger may inspire the public to exercise caution.


The current state of EMF exposure has not yet reached epidemic or even alarming levels, excluding those that have died or sustained EMF-aggravated diseases. Because authoritative medical bodies in the US have only given limited validity to EMF-related conditions, Communication Channels may not be available except through private sponsorship. 18 Federal agencies are sponsoring extensive research to validate EMF-related concerns while the American Medical Association has remained relatively passive regarding EMF exposure studies.

SAMPLE MESSAGE: EMF Effects on Melatonin among Aging Volunteers
Principal Investigator: Daniel F. Kripke, Ph.D., UC San Diego, La Jolla, California.

It has been hypothesized that EMF may suppress melatonin and mediate morbidity and mortality. The problem is particularly severe for elderly people who have low melatonin. The hypothesis that melatonin prevents aging, e.g., aging related to free-radical damage and cancer, has recently received sensational news coverage. The investigation will collect home EMF recordings to combine with data being collected for other projects on melatonin excretion and bedtime light levels and determine if EMF is a substantial regulator of melatonin production.


An evaluation form will be attached to determine: 1. What was the reader previously aware of EMFs? 2. Is the reader interested in EMF research? 3. Is the reader currently subjected to potentially hazardous EMF environments at home or work? 4. Will the reader use or reject the information once informed? 5. Would the reader like to be updated on EMF related issues?


n Electric homes require more power than fossil fuel (gas and oil) heated homes.
n Breast cancer among men in electrical occupations are double that of women.
n Children living near power lines double the risk of contracting leukemia and/or brain tumors.
n Adults can contract breast cancer, depression, and suffer a variety of negative health effects.
n Less than 2mG is not considered exposure to EMF by current standards.
n Voltage produces an electric field: Current produces a magnetic field.
n An appliance that is plugged in has an electric field, even when the appliance is turned off.
n The only medically acknowledged causes of leukemia are ionizing radiation, benzene, viruses, other chemicals and drugs that suppress bone marrow function.
n Epidemiologists in other States and Countries have connected EMF to leukemia and brain cancer.
n A recent meta-analysis of occupational EMF exposure and brain cancer found that workers in electrical occupations had a 10% to 20% higher risk (1.1 to 1.2 times the risk) of developing brain cancer compared to non-electrical occupations.
n Magnetic fields decrease dramatically about one arm's length away from the source.
n The Human brain is also an electrical device but the current is much smaller.
n Standard epidemiologic practice uses a 2 mG safety threshold to define broad categories of exposure.


Where are electromagnetic fields are in nature? _____________________________
What illnesses may have a connection to EMFs? _____________________________
Why is a doctor’s knowledge limited on EMFs? ______________________________
Are homes safe? ______________________________________________________
What action can citizens and communities take
toward protection? ____________________________________________________
Does EMF cause cancer? _______________________________________________
How do you minimize exposure? _________________________________________
What is the difference between man-made EMFs
and the Earth’s electromagnetic grid? _____________________________________
Was this presentation of value to you? ____________________________________
Would you like periodic updates on EMF- __________________________________
related news? If yes, please include ______________________________________
your contact information. _______________________________________________

EMFs appear in many forms

X-rays, visible light, microwaves, radio waves, and EMFs are all forms of electromagnetic energy that affects our bodies in different ways. Welding operations, for example, can produce electro-magnetic energy in the ultraviolet, visible, infrared, and radio frequency range, in addition to power-frequency EMFs. Microwave ovens produce 60Hz fields at several hundred milligauss. Although microwave ovens are designed to shield us from an average internal cooking frequency of 2.45 billion Hz, we are not shielded from the 60Hz EMF. The Earth produces EMFs in the form of static fields like those generated by DC electricity. Naturally occurring EMFs are produced by thunderstorms and electrical atmospheric activity. The Earth’s magnetic field averages 500 mG and are produced by electric currents flowing deep within the Earth's core. EMFs pertain to alternating rather than static electric fields. The existence of naturally occurring EMFs do not negate EMF-related health concerns since direct current (DC) does not induce AC in a stationary object.

What constitutes EMF exposure?

A typical US home ranges between 0.5 mG to 4 mG with a median of 0.6 mG. Above 2 mG represents the basis for exposure studies. The closer one is to an EMF emission source, the greater the exposure. EMF exposure is measured with a gaussmeter in units of milligauss (mG). An mG equals one-thousandth of a Gauss (G). Europe uses a microtesla (µT) where 1 mG equals 0.1 µT [see appendix]. Electric fields exist passively around an appliance, even if the appliance is turned off – it only needs to be plugged in. To conduct their studies, researchers placed gaussmeters at waist level with a probe positioned as close to the worker as possible. Spot measurements were also taken to locate and isolate the most prominent EMF emission sources.

Since 1982, several epidemiologic surveys and studies of cancers have reported a higher than expected number of leukemia cases among people who worked in certain "electrical" occupations compared with people who work in other occupations. In these studies, the "electrical worker" category included electrical engineers, phone line workers, TV and radio repairers, power station operators, electricians, and welders. Other studies have reported associations between brain cancer incidence among workers in these same occupations. Scientists have also examined the possibility that some workers may be "electrosensitive" while others are not. More precise data is derived as new variables are used to expand existing analytical methods.

Video Display Terminals

Clusters of miscarriages and birth defects were reported at several workplaces in the United States and Canada due to video display terminals (VDT). VDT emissions include X-rays, ultraviolet radiation, visible light, infrared radiation, radio frequency fields, power-frequency EMFs, chemicals (PCBs), air ions, and static fields. VDTs emit pulsed electromagnetic fields in the very low frequency (VLF) range from 15,000 to 30,000 Hz. A 1982 Spanish laboratory experiment discovered malformations in chicken embryos that were exposed to pulsed magnetic fields at low frequencies. A Finish study concluded that VDT’s emitting 50 Hz above 3 mG were responsible for an excessive number of miscarriages among women subjected to those EMF conditions. The U.S. government has no VDT exposure/emission standards but Swedish guidelines impose no more than 2 mG at a distance of 30 centimeters (11.8 inches) from the VDT surface. US standards have not been released due to technological deficiencies rather than insufficient medical and epidemiological research.

According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), electromagnetic interference can affect various medical devices, including electronic cardiac pacemakers and implantable defibrillators.  Current research now includes higher-frequency sources such as cellular telephones, citizens band radios, wireless computer linkages, microwave signals, radio, television broadcast and paging transmitters. Some research suggests that metal equipment located near a magnetic field source can greatly enhance the intensity of the field from that source. Some metallic medical implants (such as pins, nails, screws, and plates) can be affected by high static magnetic fields from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) equipment and aluminum refining processes. Sources such as welding equipment, power lines at electricity generating plants, and rail transport equipment can produce lower-frequency EMFs strong enough to create interference in various medical devices. The occupational threshold limit developed by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists state that workers with cardiac pacemakers should not be exposed to a 60-Hz magnetic field greater than 1 gauss (1000 mG) or an electric field greater than 1 kilovolt (1000 volts) per meter.


Laboratory studies have shown that EMFs promote cancerous activity in cells that are already precancerous but do not necessarily initiate the cancer process. Recent studies have shown that EMF exposure can promote tumor development in animals. Melatonin is a hormone secreted under nocturnal conditions by a small gland attached to the brain called the pineal gland. Melatonin has been found to slow growth of some cancer cells to include breast cancer. The state of California has initiated statewide research and education programs to increase EMF awareness. Many utilities companies in California have taken action to reduce EMF emissions in new facilities. The Harvard Center for Risk Analysis, in an April 1995 analysis of EMF’s suspected linkage to leukemia and cancer, concluded that, "there is enough evidence to raise concern."

Dr. Samuel Milham conducted the first study in 1982 to examine the causes of death among deceased men in various occupations in the State of Washington. Among "electrical workers," he discovered that the mortality rate due to leukemia was higher than expected when compared to other causes. In 1990, Drs. Loomis and Savitz gathered data from 16 states to study the causes of death in U.S. workers. “Electrical workers" had a higher incidence of brain cancer, but not leukemia.” A French-Canadian study led by Dr. Gilles Thériault at McGill University in Montreal in 1994 reported that workers with a higher cumulative exposure to magnetic fields were three times more likely to develop acute myeloid leukemia. Dr. Birgitta Floderus, a researcher at the Swedish National Institute of Working Life studied EMF exposure in 1,015 different workplaces in Sweden. The study involved 1,600 people in 169 different occupations. Floderus reported that EMF exposure increased the risk for chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Men under the age of 40 that were exposed to more than 2 mG also sustained an increased risk for brain tumors. A separate Swedish study conducted by Alfredsson and colleagues in 1996 found an excess risk of lymphocytic leukemia among railway engineers and conductors. Two years prior, Floderus had reported similar conditions among Swedish railway workers.

In 1990, Norwegian researchers Tynes and Andersen reported that breast cancer occurred more frequently among men who worked in electrical occupations in Norway. The number of cases totaling 12 could not be dismissed as natural. Dr. Genevieve Matanoski of Johns Hopkins University conducted another study 1991 to determine whether or not EMF exposure could be linked to breast cancer in men. She reported two cases of breast cancer among 900 men who worked in a central switching station of a New York telephone company. Since male breast cancer is a very rare (about 1:100,000 per year in the US), finding two cases in a group that small was unusual. In 1992, Dr. Dana Loomis at the University of North Carolina, studied the death records of men in 24 states and found a higher than expected proportion of breast cancer among electrical workers who were less than 65 years old. In 1993, Dr.
Pascal Guénel studied the cancer incidence among Danish workers and reported that breast cancer developed more frequently than expected in men who had continuous EMF exposure. A solid basis upon which to associate EMF to breast cancer among women could not be developed because the breast cancer rate among women is substantially higher then men, regardless of occupation.

A study published in 1995 reported that workers in Finland and in California, primarily seamstresses, dressmakers and tailors, sustained three times the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease as did other workers. This was the first study to examine the possible association between EMF exposure and Alzheimer's disease.

Travel-related EMF exposure

EMF exposure can occur inside a car or bus when it nears power lines. Car batteries do not create an EMF problem since they are direct current, but alternators generate AC power that creates an EMF at other than 60 Hz. Diesel-electric trains operate on AC. Measurements taken aboard operating trains exceeded 50 mG -- 48 units above the safety threshold. A US-sponsored exposure assessment found train operator compartments ranged from 0.4 mG (Boston high speed trolley) to 31.1 mG (North Jersey transit). Workers who maintain electrified rail lines in the northeastern United States sustain exposure at both 25 Hz and 60 Hz. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) reveals that such workers incur exposures that range between 3 to 18 mG, depending on how often trains pass the work site.


There is enough evidence to warrant continued exploration of EMFs affects on Human health. Although the data varies from study to study, the common denominators leading to adverse health conditions found in each case deserves careful treatment and greater public awareness.

“There are sufficient data for there to be real concern -- the concern is not imaginary.”
Sir Richard Doll, Oxford University, May 22, 1995

EMF Exposures of Workers in Los Angeles
Job Type Electric Field* Magnetic Field*
19.0 V/m 
5.5 V/M
9.6 mG 
1.7 mG
* The table displays the mean measurements (the sum of all measurements in
a sample divided by the number of measurements taken)
Source: London et al., 1994

The study showed that in Los Angeles, electrical workers had higher EMF exposures than workers did in other jobs.

Exposure--50/60 Hz Electric field Magnetic field 
Whole working day
10 kV/m
30 kV/m
5 G (5,000 mG)
50 G (50,000 mG)
250 G (250,000 mG)
General Public
Up to 24 hours per day 5 kV/m 1 G (1,000 mG)
Few hours per day 10 kV/m 10 G (10,000 mG)
*For electric fields of 10-30 kV/m, field strength (kV/m) multiplied by hours of exposure
should not exceed 80 for the whole working day. Whole-body exposure to magnetic fields
up to 2 hours per day should not exceed 50 G.
Source: ICNIRP 1994
The International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) is an organization of 15,000 scientists from 40 nations who specialize in radiation protection.
Guidelines for EMF Exposure
Threshold Limit Values for EMF Exposure, American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists 
Exposure--60 Hz Electric field Magnetic field 
Levels should not exceed
Workers with
cardiac pacemakers
25 kV/m* (from
0 to 100 Hz
1 kV/m or below
10 G (10,000 mG)
1 G (1,000 mG)
*Prudence dictates the use of protective devices (e.g. suits, gloves, insulation) in fields
above 15 kV/m.
Source: ACGIH 1996
The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) is a professional organization that facilitates the exchange of technical information about worker health protection. It is not a government regulatory agency.
Ranges for Low-Frequency EMFs
These ranges show the frequencies used in the following table
Range Frequencies
Static 0 hertz (Hz)
ULF Ultra low frequencies above 0, below 3 Hz
ELF Extremely low frequencies 3-3000 Hz
VLF Very low frequencies 3000-30,000 Hz
(3-30 kilohertz)
RF Radio frequencies 10,000-1 billion Hz
(1 gigahertz or 1GHz)
EMF Measurements Averaged Over a Workday
ELF magnetic fields measured in mG 
Industry and Occupation Median
for occupation
Range for 90%
of workers*
Employed men in Sweden
Construction machine operators 0.4 0.2 - 0.6
Motor vehicle drivers 0.8 0.3 - 1.9
Teachers in theoretical subjects 1.2 0.4 - 3.1
Machine repair and assembly 1.7 0.3 - 3.7
Retail sales 2.7 0.8 - 4.4
Electrical workers in various industries
Electrical engineers 1.7 0.5 - 12.0
Construction electricians 3.1 1.6 - 12.0
TV repairers 4.3 0.6 - 8.6
Welders 8.2 1.7 - 96.0
Electrical utilities
Clerical workers without computers 0.5 0.5 - 1.6
Clerical workers with computers 1.2 0.3 - 6.3
Line workers 2.5 0.5 - 35.0
Electricians 5.4 0.8 - 34.0
Distribution substation operators 7.2 1.1 - 34.0
Workers off the job (home, travel, etc.) 0.9 0.3 - 3.7
Install, maintenance and repair technicians 1.6 0.9 - 3.1
Central office technicians 2.1 0.5 - 8.2
Cable splicer 3.2 0.7 - 15.0
Auto transmission manufacturing
Assemblers 0.7 0.2 - 4.9
Machinists 1.9 0.6 - 28.0
Nurses 1.1 0.5 - 2.1
X-ray technicians 1.5 1.0 - 2.2
Garment industry workers in Finland
Sewing machine operators 22.0 10.0 - 40.0
Other factory workers 3.0 1.0 - 6.0
*This range is between the 5th and 95th percentiles of daily average measurements for an occupation.
Source: Data compiled by NIOSH. See the Reference section.
As the graph illustrates, EMF strength diminishes quickly as distance from the source increases.
EMF Spot Measurements
The data summarized in this table came from various sources, all of which are listed in the References section.
Industry and Sources ELF magnetic fields
measured in mG
Comments Other
Mechanical equipment used in manufacturing
Electric resistance heater 6000 - 14,000 Tool exposures measured at
operator's chest
Induction heater 10 - 460   High VLF
Hand-held grinder 3000    
Grinder 110    
Lathe, drill press, etc. 1 - 4  
Rectification room 2000 - 4600 Rectified DC current (with an
ELF ripple) galvanizes metal parts
High static fields
Outdoor electric line and substation  
Aluminum refining
Aluminum pot rooms Very high static field
Rectification room High static field
Steel foundry
Ladle refinery
ladle electrodes active
High ULF from the ladle's
big magnetic stirrer
Electrodes inactive  
Electrogalvanizing unit High VLF
Television broadcasting
Video cameras
(studio and minocam)
Video tape degaussers  
Light control centers  
Studio and newsrooms  
Relay switching racks Static fields and
ULF-ELF transients
Switching rooms (relay &
electronic switches
Static fields and
ULF-ELF transients
Underground phone vault  
Intensive care unit VLF
Post-anesthesia care unit VLF
Magnetic resonance
imaging (MRI)
Very high static field,
VLF and RF
Government offices
Desk work locations  
Desks near power center  
Power cables in floor  
Computer center  
Can opener  
Desktop cooling fan  
Other office appliances  
Building power supplies  
Information about the magnitude of other frequencies measured can be found in the original reports from which data for this table were drawn. They are listed in the References section.


Measuring EMFs: Common Terms

Electric field strength is measured in volts per meter (V/m) or in kilovolts per meter (kV/m).
1 kV = 1000 V

Magnetic field intensity is measured in units of gauss (G) or tesla (T). Gauss is the unit most commonly used in the United States. Tesla is the internationally accepted scientific term. One tesla equals 10,000 gauss.
1 T = 10,000 G

Since most environmental EMF exposures involve magnetic field intensities that are only a fraction of a tesla or a gauss, these are commonly measured in units of microteslas (µT) or milligauss (mG). A milligauss is 1/1000 of a gauss. A microtesla is 1/1,000,000 of a tesla.
1 G = 1000 mG
1 T = 1,000,000 µT

To convert a measurement from microteslas (µT) to milligauss (mG), multiply by 10.
1 µT = 10 mG
0.1 µT = 1 mG


Robert B. Goldberg, Ph.D. of EMF-Link, Information Ventures, Inc.
IVI Online provides substantive information about health issues of critical concern to all of us. We cover the major health challenges, including electric and magnetic fields (EMF), herbicides and pesticides, chemicals and other hazards in the workplace, pharmaceuticals, and cancer.

Questions & Answers – EMF in the workplace

Alphabetical index of health issues
High tension wires

This paper includes data from 25 sources listed on 3 pages, not attached. The above 3 are new.

EMF Sources 1
EMF Home
EMF Sources 2